Melbourne, the second largest city in Australia, has been consistently voted the worlds' most liveable city. The city is renowned for its gourmet food and the "best coffee", parks, fickle weather, clanging trams, upside-down river, football and cosmopolitan outlook. It is also the financial capital of Australia. About 4.3 million people live in the greater Melbourne area.
The easiest way to get to Australia is by air. Numerous airlines fly into the major cities such as Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth.
Sydney Opera House
The iconic Sydney Opera House with its bellowing sails, sweeping lines, graceful curves and elegant fixtures is an architectural masterpiece. Completed nearly forty years ago, the Opera House looks even better today than when it was first opened.
Throw a Boomerang
The English word “boomerang” originated from an Australian Aboriginal word "wo-mur-rang". It was a wooden hunting tool used by them which has the unique characteristic of returning to the thrower. It’s fun, so why not find someone to teach you. It takes lots of open space (so you don’t hit someone with it), lots of patience and lots of practice. What a great way to show off to your friends back home.
City Circle Tram Ride
The City Circle Tram is a free vintage hop-on-hop-off tram service for tourists to travel to major attractions, shops and other places of interest within the city of Melbourne. It links up with other transport services such in the city. There is a tram every 12 minutes between 10am and 6pm Sunday to Wednesday and between 10am and 9pm on Thursday, Friday and Saturday. The entire loop takes about 45 minutes to complete.
Snorkelling & Diving
Scuba diving and snorkelling on the Great Barrier Reef is an exhilarating experience. See one of the most awesome natural wonders of the world with multi-coloured coral reefs and fishes of every shape and size, turtles, sea cucumbers, rays, sharks and lots of other marine life. There are over 5,000 diving spots ranging from those that are for beginners to those only suitable for the experienced divers. Most snorkelling and diving is boat-based, where a large boat will take you out to a reef. Some islands, however, do have their own coral reefs around them.
Great Ocean Road
The Great Ocean Road, one of the most spectacular coastal drives in the world, winds its ways for 180 kms along the south-western coast of Victoria, Australia around ragged cliffs, windswept beaches, tall buffs and passes through lush mountain rainforest and towering eucalyptus. See the wind worn spires of the 12 Apostles, laze on the beach at Anglesea, visit the picturesque towns of Lorne and Port Fairy, get up close to native wildlife, and take in iconic surf breaks, trek through pristine rainforests and admire the misty waterfalls as you go.
The Twelve Apostles
The Twelve Apostles is a collection of seven limestone stacks that rise up majestically from the ocean near the Great Ocean Road. Once part of the mainland they were eroded away over a period of 10-20 million years separating them and leaving them stranded offshore. The name “12 Apostles” is a misnomer as there are actually only 7 standing today (one collapsed in 2005). This site was originally known as the Sow and Pigs. It was renamed the 'The Apostles' in 1922 and soon to came to be known as the 'The 12 Apostles' even though there were less than twelve limestone pillars. The 12 Apostles at sunrise and sunset are a spectacular sight as they change colour from dark almost black to brilliant sandy yellow under a full sun.
Sydney Harbour Bridge
Completed in 1932 the Sydney Harbour Bridge is the world's tallest steel arch bridge. It is 1,149 metres long and has an arch span of 503 metres. The top of the arch is 134 metres above sea-level and the bottom of the bridge is 49 metres above sea-level. The two stone columns on either end of the bridge serve no structural function. They were placed there to reassure the public who doubted the strength of a steel structure alone. The bridge carries 200,000 vehicles a day on eight vehicle lanes. It also has two train lines, a pedestrian walkway and a cycleway. In recent time the bridge has become very popular with bridge climbers who clamber along its arches to the top for the spectacular view from the top. On New Year's Eve the bridge is used to stage a colourful fireworks display.
Sydney is Australia's oldest and largest city. About 4.4 million people live in the greater Sydney area. The defining symbols of Sydney are its Opera House and the "coat hanger bridge". Sydney is the commercial capital of Australia.
Fraser Island off the coast off the coast of southern Queensland is the world’s largest sand island. It measures 120 km long by 22 kilometres wide and was formed over hundreds of thousands of years when wind and waves piled up sand, as tall as 244 meters high, to form the island. It is home to a purest strain of Dingoes, Australia’s native dog, and a great place from which to see humpback whales from late June to November. Things to do include going 4WD on the sand dunes, walking through the rainforest, fishing off 75-Five Mile Beach, swimming in the Champagne pools and numerous freshwater lakes.
Kakadu National Park
Kakadu National Park is a huge natural reserve in the Northern Territory that is home to over 2,000 unique varieties of plants and a wide range of animals including giant crocodiles, exotic birds, dugongs and fat-back turtles. Australian Aboriginals lived in this area for tens of thousands of years and some of the best of their rock painting are found here.
Play a Didgeridoo
Here is a girl playing a didgeridoo in France! If she can do it then you should surely give it a go. Some claim that the didgeridoo is one of the world’s most ancient musical instruments. Like all musical instruments it takes a lot of practice. The biggest secret to successful didgeridoo playing is to learn how to inhale with your nose while exhaling into the instrument with your mouth at the same time. Try it. It’s fun.
Great Barrier Reef
Located off the coast of Queensland, Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is the largest coral reef in the world, and has the most diverse range of underwater animals anywhere on earth. It is estimated that about 10% of the world's entire fish species live here. The Great Barrier Reef is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Australia. It is ideal place for snorkelling, scuba diving, sailing, whale and dolphin watching and lots more. There is also an underwater observatory from where you can see the fantastic underwater biodiversity.
Climb "The Bridge"
Climbing the Sydney Harbour Bridge is an exhilarating experience. Tours organised by BridgeClimb range from the basic to the top of the world. Lead by trained guides, climbs take place throughout the day and last for about 3.5 hours. The best times are early morning and at sunset. Once on the top of the bridge you will see a breathtaking view of the Opera House, the harbour, the city and as far as the Blue Mountains.
Cairns (Australians pronounce it as "Cans") is the main city for tours of the Great Barrier Reef. Other things of interest are the Cairns Esplanade, Botanic Gardens and Muddy's Playground for kids.
Located 81km west of Sydney this area is populated by oil bearing Eucalyptus trees that fill the atmosphere with fine droplets of oil that combine with water vapour and dust particles in the air causing short-wave length rays of light to scatter giving the blue colour we see. The national park has dramatic gorges, towering rock formations, waterfalls, extensive hiking trails and aboriginal rock paintings. Hiking rock climbing, horseback riding, mountain biking and abseiling are popular activates in this park.
National Gallery Victoria
The National Gallery of Victoria is the oldest, largest and most popular museum in Australia. It houses a collection of over 70,000 works of European, Asian, Aboriginal, Oceanic and American art. The gallery also offers a diverse collection of temporary exhibitions, displays, tours, films, talks, programs for kids with late-night openings and special performances.
Located to the north of Cairns and Port Douglas the the world heritage listed Daintree Rainforest offers an interesting insight into a tropical Australian rainforest. Some of
the trees in this forest are believed to be the oldest in the world. Tour operators offer boat cruises, 4wd and bus tours. A cruise on the Daintree River is an easy way the see the sights of
ancient rainforest trees and animals including crocodiles and birds such as the cassowary. Tours depart from Cairns,
Port Douglas, Palm Cove, etc.
This is a true outback adventure. Located in the remote north-western region of Western Australia, the existence of these beehive shaped mountains with beautiful gorges, tropical pools and caves were only known to the local Aboriginals and a few pastoralists (ranchers) until “discovered” by a film crew in 1983. The 350-million-year-old mountain range with peculiar orange and black striped mountains are the eroded remains of a very ancient meteorite impact crater. The darker bands are layers of rock which hold more moisture and have a dark algal growth. The orange layers are stained with iron and manganese. The park is also home to Cathedral Gorge, an amazing natural amphitheatre. Access to this park is by air and then by four-wheel drive vehicles.
Lying in the centre of the Great Barrier Reef, this collection of 74 islands white-sanded sun-drenched idyllic islands are a great place to relax on the beach, take in the sun go snorkelling and scuba diving in the spectacular reefs close by or sail amongst the islands. Of these islands the most famous are Daydream Island, Hamilton Island, Hayman Island and Long Island.
Australia one of the world’s premier surfing destinations. With over 50,000 kms of coastline it has excellent beach, reef and point breaks to challenge the most experienced surfers. Some of the key surf beaches are Bells Beach and the Surf Coast in Victoria. In New South Wales Byron Bay, Newcastle and Sydney and its south coast offer great surfing. Burleigh Heads or Snapper Rocks on Queensland's Gold Coast have some of the world’s longest waves.
The Gold Coast in Queensland is Australia's largest theme park centre. Dream World is the largest with over 50 rides, attractions and wildlife areas such as Tiger Island. Movie World is a movie related theme park with rides including motion simulators, roller coasters, river rides and the opportunity to meet many costumed characters. Sea World is a marine mammal, aquarium, theme and conservation park. Wet’n’Wild is a water oriented theme park with fantastic water slides. Other major theme parks in Australia include Luna Park in Melbourne and Sydney.
Once a thriving pearling centre, Broome today is a tourist town to the south of the spectacular Kimberley region of Western Australia. It is renowned for its sandy white beaches and turquoise seas where tourist ride camels at sunset. The Staircase to the Moon is an optical illusion that occurs frequently between March and October when moonlight creates an illusion of steps leading to the moon. During low tide at Gantheaume Point close by you can see real dinosaur tracks imprinted in ancient rocks.
Canberra is the capital of Australia. The key attractions of Canberra are the modern Parliament House, the War Memorial, Dinosaur Museum, National Museum of Australia, National Portrait Gallery and close by are a number of wineries and the Snowy Mountains for skiing in winter.
Uluru is a massive sandstone rock dome that rises 348 m from the flat deserts of central Australia. The local Aboriginal people consider the rock a scared site. Besides its huge size, being 9.4 km in circumference the most spectacular feature of Uluru is how it changes colour at different times of the day and year, most notably when it glows red at dawn and sunset. While climbing to the top is a steep 800 m hike which takes about an hour is not prohibited, it is discouraged by the Aboriginal custodian of the place. Unfit persons should definitely not attempt the climb.
Just 7 kms from the centre of Sydney, Bondi Beach is famous for its sandy beach, great surf, lifesavers, laid back and tolerant attitude and sunbathers and surfers. The restaurant and bar scene is also vibrate and many fashion boutiques and luxury apartment line its streets.
Australian love their sports. In the winter it’s Australian Football, Rugby and Soccer. In Summer its Cricket and Tennis. There is usually something on in Melbourne and Sydney almost every weekend.
There are five types of visa available to those "visiting" Australia. The Visitor, Electronic Travel Authority and eVisotor visas allow you enter the country for up to three months for holiday, tourist and business purposes as long as you do not work or sell goods and services. The Medical Treatment visa is for people who are seeking medical treatment in Australia and the Special Category visa applies to New Zealanders. You need to obtain your visa before you arrive in Australia. For more information visit the Australian government websites.
Customs & Quarantine
"Declare it". Australia has very strict customs and quarantine regulations. Declare all food, plant material and animal products. Australia's laws also prohibit you from bringing drugs, steroids, weapons, firearms and protected wildlife into Australia. There is no restriction on the amount of money you can bring in, but you must declare anything over A$10,000. The duty free concession for adults is A$900 worth of goods, Up to 2.25 litres of alcoholic beverages (liquor, wine, champagne) and 50 cigarettes.
Australia has a wonderful non-tipping culture. Service providers don't expect to be tipped. Tipping is entirely voluntary. Obviously if someone provided you with exceptional service you can tip them if you wish.
Driving in Australia
Australian drive on the left side of the road, like the UK, India and Japan. This is usually the opposite everyone else. Also, The roads are very good but distances in Australia are staggering. In the Outback you can drive for days without seeing anyone else. So if you dare venture out on your own make sure someone knows where you are going and what route you are taking, stick to the main roads and make sure you have plenty of food and water and that your vehicle is fuelled and road-worthy. If stranded, stay with your vehicle.
There are no restrictions in taking photographs.
Australia is a very safe place to visit. You would need to be extremely unlucky, reckless or foolish to experience any physical harm. Always exercise due care and caution.
Most dangers are associated in or near water. Follow the safety advise given on signs and by trained personnel such as boat
operators and lifeguards.
Diving & Snorkelling: The most common problem encountered by people is getting into difficulty while diving or
snorkelling. Diving and snorkelling can be very strenuous, especially for the elderly and those suffering from pre-existing medical conditions. It can also be stressful for someone who may be
unnerved by having to breath underwater. So don’t do it if you aren't in reasonably good health. Take a glass-bottom boat tour instead!
Drowning: swim between the red and yellow flags placed on most popular beaches. Almost 50% of beach rescues and at nearly 21% of drowning deaths are due to rip currents which are like underwater rivers which drag you along and under if you get caught in one. If there are no flags then exercise great caution. .
Sunburn: Australia has lots of sunlight and it is very easy to
get sunburnt. Always apply sunscreen several times a day.
Jelly Fish: It is very very unlikely that your will be stung by a jelly fish. Some claim the chances are as low one in a
million. The stinger season is between November and May. This is the time jelly fish are most prevalent along the coast. Heed the abundant warning that are posted on beaches which are subject to
Sharks: It is very unlikely that you will encounter any sort of shark especially not the ferocious types you see in the movies. But, they are around. There are occasional reports of a shark attack and
sometimes these can be fatal. Again exercise caution and take advice from the experts around the area you are planning to swim in.
Crocodiles: Crocodiles attacks are extremely rare but they do occur from time to
time. There are definitely crocodiles around some of the estuaries and very rarely they are even out at sea. Follow reasonable precautions and you will be safe. For example you would be silly to walk
close to remote estuaries at night.
Smoking & Alcohol
Smoking regulations vary from state to state but in general smoking is banned in enclosed public places such as office buildings, shopping malls, schools and cinemas, public vehicles such as taxis, buses, trains and sea going vessels. Most restaurants and cafés are also smoke free. Smoking is only allowed in designated areas.
Alcohol is freely available for persons over the age of 18. Pubs, restaurants etc supply alcohol. There are laws, however, against consuming alcohol in public.
Australia has “upside down” weather. Its seasons are the opposite of those in the western hemisphere. Summer is from December to February and winter is from June to August. To generalise very broadly the weather along the coastal areas in the southern regions of Australia is similar to that of Northern California with crisp cool winters and sunny warm to hot dry summers. Australia also has subtropical climates similar to Florida in areas such as Brisbane and tropical climates more akin to Asia in the north. The interior of Australia hot and dry and is probably more like the desert climates of Arizona.
Australia - Physical Description Size, Location, Topography & Geography
Located between 10° and 39° South latitude in the Southern Hemisphere in southeast of Asia, Australia is the world’s smallest continent and its biggest island. (Because Australia is a continent it doesn't officially earn the title of biggest island. This title goes to Greenland). It is bounded by the India Ocean on the west, the Timor, Arafura and Coral seas to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the east and the Southern Ocean and Tasman Sea to the southeast.
Australia is the 6th biggest country in the world comprising of a landmass of 7,682,300 km² and includes 8,222 islands in its territory. It is about 31 times bigger than the UK, 22 times bigger than Germany and a bit smaller than the continental USA. Australia is approximately 4000 kilometres wide, from east to west and spans three time zones. It is 3860 kilometres long from its most northerly point of Cape York to its most southerly point on the island of Tasmania. Being an island continent Australia has 34,218 kilometres of coastline and over 10,000 beaches.
The continent of Australia is the oldest, smallest, flattest and second driest continent on earth (Antarctica is the driest). The highest point in Australia is Mount Kosciuszko in New South Wales which is 2,228 metres above sea level. The lowest point is the dry lake bed of Lake Eyre in South Australia which is 15 metres below sea level.
The geography of the country is extremely diverse, ranging from the snow-capped mountains to large arid deserts, tropical rainforests and temperate forests. Because of its location in the middle of a tectonic plate, Australia does not have any active volcanoes. The country has 10 deserts that cover nearly 20% of its landmass. The largest of these is the Great Victorian Desert located in Western Australia which is 1.5 times larger than all of the UK. Even though it is the driest continent in the world; because of its sheer size, it has more snowfall than Switzerland.
The Great Barrier Reef off the eastern coast of Australia is the world's largest coral reef.
Australia is located in the Southern Hemisphere. As a consequence its weather is “upside down”. That is; its seasons are the opposite of those in the western hemisphere. Summer is from December to February and winter is from June to August.
What the People of Australia Call Their Home
Australia, Oz, Aus - The people of Australia refer to their country by these names.
The City - Is any large urban area for example Sydney, Melbourne and Canberra.
The Country - It is a stretch of land about 400 kilometres deep along the south-eastern and south-western seaboard of Australia immediately outside a city. Upper Beaconsfield, the Great Ocean Road , the Dandenongs are in "the country".
The Outback - is the harsh and breathtakingly beautiful arid interior of Australia. It makes up almost 85% of Australian landmass. Coober Pedy, Uluru are in the Outback.
Commonwealth of Australia Australian Federation of States
The official name for Australia is the Commonwealth of Australia.
The nation of Australia was official proclaimed on the 1st of January 1901 when the former colonies and territories of the British Empire that occupied the continent of Australia and the island of Tasmania agreed to join together (federate) to form a country. These now constitute six states and two territories.
The six states are: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia. The two Territories are: The Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory.
The capital of Australia is Canberra and is located in the Australian Capital Territory.
As an anachronism from its colonial past, the Head of State of the Commonwealth of Australia is the monarch of the United Kingdom who is represented in Australia by the Governor General. Each state too has its own Governor General appointed by the monarch of the United Kingdom. There has been some debate of Australia cutting its ties with the UK and becoming a republic. However, there hasn't been great enthusiasm from the Australian people to do so yet.
How Did Australia get its Name? Who Named Australia
The Land of Oz
The Strine word "Oz" is a phonetic shortened form of the word Australia. It first appeared in 1906 as “Oss” and sometimes as “Aus” (rhymes with boss). This morphed into “OZ”, sounding the same as oss and Aus. It has been suggested that this transformation may have been a consequence of the 1939 movie The Wizard of Oz. Other colloquial names include "the Land Down Under" and "Aussie".
In about 200AD a Greek astronomer and mapmaker named Claudius Ptolemy believed that the earth had to be balanced or it would topple over. So he drew in an imaginary land on the bottom of his maps of the world. Over time this imaginary land came to be referred to as Terra Australis Incognita which means the Unknown Southern Land.
Dutch explorers of the 17th century referred to the northern, western and southern coasts of the Australian continent as Nova Hollandia (Latin for 'New Holland'). The first ever recorded used of the word in English was in “A note of Austrialia del Espíritu Santo” by Sir Richard Hakluyt in the publication Hakluytus Posthumus. Hakluyt borrowed this name from the Spanish who in 1606 called the present day island of Vanuatu "Austrialia del Espiritu Santo" (Southern-Austrian Land of the Holy Spirit). “Austrialia” being a concatenation of Australis and Austria whose kings ruled Spain at that time. The British explorer James Cook in 1770 used the word "Astralia" but only in to context of the Spanish name for Vanuvatu. Cook continued to use the term New Holland and called the land he claimed for the British New South Wales. George Shaw in his work Zoology of New Holland of 1794 wrote "the vast Island or rather Continent of Australia, Australasia, or New Holland, which has so lately attracted... particular attention." It was the English explorer Matthew Flinders who was the first to circumnavigate the entire continent in 1803 and referred to it in his hand drawn map of the continent as Terra Australis but in a footnote to his 1814 book A Voyage to Terra Australis he noted:
"Had I permitted myself any innovation on the original term, it would have been to convert it to AUSTRALIA; as being more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth."
On 12 December 1817, Governor Lachlan Macquarie recommended to the British Colonial Office that the "Australia" be adopted as the name of the continent still being referred to as New Holland. Finally, in 1824, the British Admiralty agreed that the continent should be officially called Australia.
Population of Australia Australian People
The people of Australia are called Australians. Their general cultural outlook is Western (similar to that of the United Kingdom and USA) but it has evolved into a uniquely Australasian cultural identity. Australian live in a harmonious multicultural society which respects the different cultures, religions and customs of all its people.
The population of Australia is approximately 24.5 million people and grows at the rate of roughly 400,00 people an year. It is one of the least populated places on earth. There are less people in all of Australia than are in just a city such as Tokyo, Shanghai, Jakarta or New Delhi. There are only 3 people per square kilometre. By comparison China has 146, India 441, Japan 348, USA 35 and UK 269. Because most of the interior of the country is extremely hot and arid most of the population lives along the more hospitable eastern coastal area of the country.
Australia is also has one of the most highly urbanised societies in the world, about 90% of the population live in cities and towns. The country's two largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne, hold nearly 30% of the entire population of the country.
Almost 94% of the population are of European decent and as a result we have a western outlook and culture. Over 90% of the population is made up of immigrants or the children of immigrants who arrived here during the last two centuries. 28% percent of people living in Australia today were born in a foreign country and migrated here. Nearly 50% of all Australians living today are from an overseas country or have at least one parent who was born overseas.
While we may all call ourselves Australians, if you were to ask the question were did your come from or what is your ethnicity the statistics are as follows: English 25.9%, Australian 25.4%, Irish 7.5%, Scottish 6.4%, Italian 3.3%, German 3.2%, Chinese 3.1%, Indian 1.4%, Greek 1.4%, Dutch 1.2%, other 20% and Aboriginal .5%.
Australian Language Australian English and Multilingual Population
Australia is an English speaking country. While there is no “official” language as such. English is the first language of the majority of the population and the language used in government and business communications.
The English used in Australia is "Australian English" which is derived from British English. So for example, Australians spell color as colour and center as centre. Australians also love to shorten words and create slang words. They make up all sorts of new words, referred to as Strine, adding a rich vocabulary of new words to their language such as rellie (a relative), and tradie (a trades-person). The Australian accent and the pronunciation of words is uniquely Australian and sits somewhere between that of the British and Americans.
Because Australia is a multicultural society made up of people from all over the world; there are about 225 different languages and dialects spoken by people living in Australia. The most common languages spoken other than English are Mandarin, Italian, Arabic, Cantonese, Greek, Vietnamese, Spanish, Hindi and Tagalog.
Australian Economy 12th Largest in the World
Australia has a stable modern market economy which is the 12th largest in the world. It is about the same size as that of Russia and bigger than that of Spain and Mexico. The average growth rate over the last 17 years has been 3%. It has first world social, education, health and transport infrastructure. The service sector constitutes 59% of Australian GDP, mining 5%, manufacturing 7%, retail 5% and construction 9%. Australia is a major exporter of wheat, wool, iron-ore, gold, liquefied natural gas and coal.
Australian System of Government Federal, State and Local
Australian Compulsory Voting System
Australia has a compulsory voting system where all eligible citizens are expected to exercise their civic responsibility by selecting their elected representatives of government. As a consequence of this voter turnout at elections is about 95%. Those who do not vote without good cause (such as illness or religious prohibition) may be fined up to $170 and even an appear in a court of law.
(The voter turnout in general elections in the UK in 2015 was 59% and only 55% in the US general election of 2016.)
Australia is a representative democracy following the Westminster System of government (like that of the UK). Being a constitutional monarchy, the king or queen is the head of state and the powers of government are limited by the constitution. There are three branches of government. These are the legislative, which makes laws, the executive which administers the laws made by the legislative branch and runs the government and the judicial branch which interprets the and uphold the laws of the land. Adequate checks and balances exist, including a free and raucous press to ensure that no branch of government abuses its authority.
Federal Commonwealth Government
The federal government is responsible for trade, taxation, immigration, citizenship, social security, defence, industrial relations and foreign affairs. Commonwealth law overrules state laws where the law is within these constitutional powers of the Commonwealth.
Every state and territory has its own parliament and its own constitution. State and territory governments are responsible for those powers not administered by the commonwealth government. Typically these cover education, health and safety and public infrastructure.
The powers of local government vary from state to state and are those allocated by the state government. These usually include town planning, building codes, waste and sanitary services, and community facilities.
Australian Animals Native Australian Animal
Australia has some of the most unusual native animals in the world. Over 83% of the mammals, 7% of the birds, 89% of the reptiles and 94% of the frogs are unique to Australia.
Australia's long isolation from the rest of the world has allowed Australian fauna to evolve separately from those in other parts of the world, but many fill similar niches in the local environment. For example the Echidna is an Australian anteater. The Tasmanian Tiger (now extinct) was a marsupial wolf.
Australian Plants Native Australian Plants
Australia has an estimated 27,700 native plant species (The UK has approximately 1,700). These include the Acacia, Eucalyptus and Grevillea.