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Sigiriya - Rock Fortress of King Kasyapa

“He betook himself through fear to Sīhāgiri
which is difficult to ascent for human beings.
He cleared roundabout, surrounded it with a wall
and built a staircase in the form of a lion…
Then he built there a fine palace, worthy to behold,
like another Alakamanda,
and dwelt there like (the god) Kuvera."

                                                                    Culavamsa CH 39 v2-4 (circa 1200AD)

Sigiriya Fresco 3

History of Sigiriya

The history of Sigiriya is one of vision, grandeur, beauty and tragedy unparalleled in Sri Lankan history. One thousand six hundred years ago it burst briefly into pre-eminence with breathtaking architecture and art and then quickly faded away into oblivion and was forgotten. Few historic sites in the world have such an interesting tale to tell as that of Sigiriya.

The story of Sigiriya Rock Fortress is the tale of King Kasyapa who ruled 1600 years ago between 477 and 495AD. A troubled but visionary king Kasyapa murdered his father by plastering him up in a wall. Tormented by guilt and fear he abandoned his capital of Anuradhapura and fled deep in the forests of Sri Lanka. There in an area dominated by a menacing black column of rock 600 feet high he built himself a new capital resplendent with lush gardens, ponds, palaces and pavilions. He transformed the once sinister-looking black rock to appear like a huge dazzling white cloud and painted it with beautiful frescoes of semi-naked nymphs. He build a massive gatehouse in the form of a lion to guard the entrance to the inmost sanctum of his city; the Sky Palace on top of the rock. There, hidden from view, he lived in splendid isolation tormented by guilt and fear. Finally, betrayed, he committed suicide. (See Kasyapa for more detail).

 

Inspiration for Sigiriya

Having decided to move his capital, King Kasyapa had a grand vision. He would build his city to emulate Alakamanda. In Buddhist mythology Alakamanda was a beautiful and prosperous city of the gods. It was said to exist in a faraway place at a great elevation. Its ruler was Kuvera, the god of wealth and plenty. It is from this legend that Kasyapa gained his inspiration. He would harness the vast wealth and resources of his kingdom to recreate Alakamanda on earth. It is for this reason that Kasyapa choose a location deep in the inhospitable forests of central Sri Lanka. Its only significant feature of the area was a huge menacing black rock 200 meters high. He, Kasyapa, would transform the rock to appear as though it were a cloud and on its summit he would build a palace in the sky and rule as though he were a god-king.

Sigiriya Rock as it may have appeared before Kasyapa
Sigiriya Rock as Kasyapa may first have seen it.

Construction of the Sigiriya

The site chosen for the capital was a foreboding place indeed; teeming with wild elephants, poisonous snakes, leopards, bears, mosquitoes, hornets and other vermin. Kasyapa was fortunate. He was the king of a extremely prosperous kingdom. He also had a huge workforce of highly skilled laborers and artisans to do his bidding. An army of over a hundred thousand men, thousands of bullocks and many hundreds of elephants toiled for years to build a magnificent new city in the forest.

Sigiriya Under Construction - Artists Impression
Artist's Impression of Sigiriya Under Construction

The pièce de résistance of the new city was the rock itself. It was the centerpiece of the entire city. Kasyapa and his architects built a royal citadel with ramparts and moats and lavish gardens, ponds and fountains around this looming black rock. They constructed beautiful multicolored pavilions, palaces and halls. They erected grand staircases leading up to the base of the rock and then an unusual parapet wall which precariously hugged the side of the near vertical rock face as it wound its way around the western side of the rock. This wall had such a high reflective luster that it came to be known as the Mirror Wall. They then painted the entire surface of the sinister-looking black rock in a coat of white paint so that it appeared like a massive cloud floating above the treetops. Then on the western surface of the rock, they painted the largest portrait gallery in the world. This spectacular gallery consisted of over 500 stunning multi-colored frescoes depicting lightly clad semi-naked females — the Sigiriya Frescoes.

Fresco - Lady with a bunch of Flowers
Sigiriya Frescoes

On a small plateau halfway up the rock, on the northern side, Kasyapa constructed a giant gatehouse and staircase in the form of a brightly colored sphinx-like lion thirty-five meters tall. Through its chest, via an almost perpendicular staircase, was the final ascent to the summit of the rock. It is this feature, the Lion Staircase, which in later time bestowed the place its name Sīhāgiri — Lion Mountain (Lion Rock). We know it today as Sigiriya.

Sigiriya Lion Staircase
Artist's Impression of the Lion Staircase, during the time of Kasyapa

But this was only the beginning. Kasyapa then had millions of bricks and hundreds of thousands tons of other material transported manually 200 meters up a sheer rock face to the summit of the rock to build a gleaming Sky Palace of unparalleled beauty. Visible from miles around it shone radiantly in the sunlight proclaiming to all the power and prestige of the king.

Sigiriya Rock during the time of Kasyapa - Artist Impression
Artist's Impression of Sigiriya Rock, Frescoes and Gardens during the time of Kasyapa

Decline and Abandonment of Sigiriya

Upon Kasyapa's death the royal capital was moved back to Anuradhapura. The magnificent Sigiriya Citadel was stripped of its treasures and converted in to a Buddhist monastery. Over the ensuring centuries it was progressively abandoned and then finally completely deserted. Slowly it was consumed by the forests and disappeared into the mists of time; forgotten, a mere footnote in history.

In time Sigiriya became a grim and foreboding place. At dusk, clouds of bats sallied forth from their lairs into the night sky and wild animals roamed its crumbling pavilions, ponds, and gardens. The palace in the sky had long ago crumbled and been carried away by the wind. For centuries, no human set foot on its summit.

 

The "Discovery" of Sigiriya

Sigiriya Elephant HuntBy 1815 the island was annexed into the British Empire. In 1827, a young British army officer named Jonathan Forbes arrived for duty in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and was “immediately attracted to the jungle by the novelty of elephant shooting.” Forbes had befriended George Turnour, a British Civil Servant, who had been deciphering ancient Sri Lankan chronicles. As a consequence he was well aware of the fact that a lost city lay buried in the forests. While on an elephant shoot in 1831 Forbes stumbled upon the ruins of Sigiriya.

Sigiriya Rock during excavationForbes describes how he and his companions ventured through the thick undergrowth and clambered up the dislodged steps of a series of winding stairs that zigzagged up the side of the rock and onto a walled gallery (the Mirror Wall). They proceeded along this gallery for about a hundred meters before, giddy from heat and exhaustion, they were forced to withdraw. Forbes returned in 1833 to continue his exploration of the site, noting that the projecting rock above the galley “had been painted in bright colors.” Serious excavation of the site commenced in 1895. The photograph on the right shows the area near the Lion Staircase after initial clearing of the site. (The Lion Staircase was still buried under the debris in this photograph).

 

How Sigiriya got its Name

This area in central Sri Lanka has been inhabited by humans since at least 20,000 BC. However we do not know what this place was called before the time of Kasyapa. We dont even know its name during Kasyapa's lifetime. An inscription carved in the tenth year of Kasyapa's rule, found at Timbirivava, makes the reference “Maharaja Kasabala Alakapaya” (Kasyapa King of Alakamanda). Two inscriptions attributed to King Mahinda who ruled between 956 and 972 AD found at Vessagiriya in Anuradhapura uses the name “Kasubgiri”. A literal translation of this word would be “Kasyapa of the Mountain”. The first authenticated use of the name "Sīhāgiri" (meaning Lion Mountain) occurs in the Culavamsa written in the 12th century nearly 800 hundred years after Sigiriya was abandoned as the royal capital. The Culavamsa also refers to Kasyapa's palace as looking like Alakamanda. Therefore we can only say with certainty that the area was known as Sigiriya from about the 12th century AD.

The proper pronunciation of this name is see-gee-ree-yah.

 

The Ruins of the Sigiriya Today

Sigiriya was the largest and most sophisticated single construction project ever undertaken in ancient Sri Lanka. The ruins of the Sigiriya Rock Fortress seen today are less than twenty percent of the structures that once graced the area. Most buildings were made of wood. Consequently, there is very little evidence of these structures. Those built with stone and brick have survived the ravages of time and provide us a rare glimpse of the opulence and grandeur of an ancient era. Many ruins still lay hidden in the forest and are yet to be discovered.

Sigiriya Rock, Frescoes and Gardens today
Sigiriya Rock and Gardens today

It is difficult for a modern tourist to comprehend the absolute splendor of the Sigiriya Rock Fortress 1600 years ago. Few ancient cities surpassed it for its ecologically-sensitive, grand vision and aesthetic elegance. It is one of the best preserved examples of ancient urban planning in the world.

Imagine this was a magical place; an earthly paradise of lush gardens, ponds, fountains, and brightly colored pavilions. Its centerpiece was a huge rock which appears as though it were a large cloud tethered to earth festooned with a spectacular work of art, the Sigiriya Frescoes, which harked up to a Sky Palace on top of a huge rock 200 meter tall.

Where is Sigiriya Located?

Sigiriya is located in north-central Sri Lanka making it ideally suited as a jump off point for other sites in the Cultural Triangle. It is approximately 181 kilometers from Colombo; a drive of approximately 3.5 hours. The tourist resort of Negambo is153 kilometers (3 hours) away. It is 98 kilometers (2 hours) from the hill capital of Kandy.

Map of Sri Lanka with Sigiriya Identified


Sigiriya Site Information

Entrance Fees: $30 (also includes entry into the Museum)
Opening Hours: 7:00 AM – 5:30 PM (Last entry 5:00 PM).
Visit: 3-4 hours
Climb: 60-90 Minutes to the top
Refreshments: Main Entrance & Exit (Juice Bar is great)
Toilets: Main Entrance & Exit only


Contents

Rock Formation
Pre-History
About Kasyapa
The Citadel
   Ramparts, Moats & Entrances
   Gardens,Ponds & Palaces
      Miniature Gardens
      Pavilion Gardens
      Fountain Gardens
      Moated Palaces & Gardens
      Octagonal Pond & Gardens
      Boulder Gardens
      Terraced Gardens
   Mirror Wall
   Sigiriya Frescoes
   Sigiriya Graffiti
   Lion Staircase
   Sky Palace
Pidurangala
Site Index and FAQs

Books
Maps
Hotels
Other Attractions & Things to Do

How to Get There

Driving: Sigiriya is 161 kms from Colombo,155 kms from Negambo and 98 kms from Kandy.
Bus: Services run from major cities to Dambulla and Habarana both are 24 kms away. There are bus services from there to the site.
Train: There is a train service to Habarana 24 kms away. You will need to take road transport from there to the site.
Plane: Cinnamon Air offers a flight from Colombo International Airport to Sigiriya. The flight takes approximately 30 minutes.


Climbing Sigiriya Rock

No tour of this historic site is complete without climbing Sigiriya Rock. There are approaximately 1200 steps to the summit. Not only is the view from the top exhilarating; it also gives you a perspective of the sheer enormity of the building project King Kasyapa and his architects undertook 1600 years ago.

Climbing Sigiriya Rock is strenuous but not difficult. You will agree, once there, that it was all worth it.

Be comforted by the fact that the climb down from the summit seems a lot easier....read more


Sigiriya Attractions & Things to Do

There are a number of other attractions and things to do around Sigiriya.


Best Sigiriya Hotels

Sigiriya is centrally located in the Sri Lanka Cultural Triangle area. It is an ideal home-base from which to visit other attractions in north-central Sri Lanka.

The author has stayed in these hotels during his frequent visits to the site. He has listed the best Sigiriya hotels here.


What to Wear

Being in the tropics, the weather at Sigiriya is usually hot and humid. Dressing smart will make the experience far more enjoyable.

  • Clothing - Loose cotton or breathable fabric clothes.

  • Shoes - Good trainers/runners/ sneakers.

  • Hat - A broad brimmed hat to keep the sun away.

  • Sunscreen - Definitely a good idea in the tropics.


Tour Guides

While the citadel is well sign-posted, tour guides can still be useful. They are licensed and know the place well. This can save you a lot of time and frustration getting about. Negotiate the duration of the tour and its price before you start. A good tour should take approximately 3-4 hours. Anything less than that will probably be a direct trip to the summit and back. It is common courtesy to tip the guide if you think he has done a good job.


Safety & Comfort

Sigiriya, more than other historic sites in Sri Lanka, has a number of minor thrills and spills that a visitor should be aware of. These include the climb to the top, dehydration, hornets, elephants and crocodiles. Use commonsense and you will be assured an incident-free visit.... read more.


Sigiriya Climate & Weather

Sigiriya, like the rest of Sri Lanka, has a hot and humid tropical climate. The weather in general is unpredictable. Torrential downpours occur frequently. These are usually short-lived and tend to be in the afternoons... read more


Maps of Sigiriya

A map of Sri Lanka highlighting the key tourist attractions and a map of the Sigiriya Citadel can be found...here.



Our Book

The Story of Sigiriya Book Cover

Click image for book preview

Written by Senani Ponnamperuma — Author of The Story of Sigiriya